Scientists have laid bare a novel molecular mechanism responsible for the major depression symptom, anhedonia, the loss of the ability to experience pleasure. The brain circuit involved in this newly elucidated pathway is largely identical between rod…
Could veterans of war, rape victims and other people who have seen horrific crimes someday have the traumatic memories that haunt them weakened in their brains? In a new study, UCLA life scientists report a discovery that may make the reduction of such… …“The advantage of Aplysia,” he said, “is that we know the neurons that produce this reflex; we know where they are in the nervous system.”
The scientists removed the key neurons from the snail’s nervous system and put them in a Petri dish, thereby recreating in the dish the two-neuron “circuit” — a sensory neuron and a motor neuron — that produces the reflex.
“The point is to reduce the problem so we can study on a fundamental biological level how PKM is maintaining long-term memory,” Glanzman said.
Effects of obesity on the brain: first evidence of sex-related differences in the brain’s white matter structure Obesity is today one of the most prevalent medical conditions, and has a major impact on health. Recent studies have also shown a relationship… The differences in diffusion, which are likewise observed in premature aging of the brain tissue, were more dominant in female participants and covered a greater area of the corpus callosum. This is the first study to show systematic sex-related differences in the relationship between weight and the brain. This could possibly be because connections between the brain hemispheres generally show differences between men and women.
Concordia University researchers studied two groups of fluently bilingual adults – aged from 19 to 35 and from 60 to 81 years old – and found significant age-related differences in the manner their brains interpreted written language.
“We wanted to know whether older adults relied on context to process interlingual homographs (IH) – words that are spelled the same in both languages but have a different meaning,” says lead author Shanna Kousaie, a PhD candidate at Concordia University’s Department of Psychology and Centre for Research in Human Development (CRDH).
Does “coin” mean “money” or “corner”?
As part of the study, subjects were asked to read hundreds of trios of words. The first word in the triplet was in either English or French, indicating the language of the IH, putting it in context for readers. The second was an IH – a word such as “coin,” which means “money” in English but “corner” in French. The third word was one that might or might not help the person understand the meaning of the IH more quickly.
Subjects’ neurophysiological responses to these words were recorded using an electroencephalograph, an instrument that records the brain’s electrical activity.